NN73 Fig.2, when a submacro, is not routing its tokens from the path through the T-transition. Is that a waste?
Well, in the world, waste does exist, although we would not like that to exist. Here is a real-life story.
In a course on communication-networks, in a lecture, I suggested that the Token Ring protocol would work more efficiently, if the token would hold a bit about whether/who, if any, wants to use the network next. The lecturer bragged "we are engineers, we have to consider the cost." (I was a psychology senior, taking that elective course.) If the momentum of his bragging would convince some ignorant people, they might have guessed the question was similar to asking a biomechanics professor "would elephants also fly if they had the wings of a mocking bird?" I could see that he was not amounting to refuting, so, he was not able to change what I was thinking. And next, I happened to find that information in the January 1989 issue of Byte magazine (that lecture was in 1993). The new editor of a column was telling about a Token Ring project they worked at before coming to Byte. That Token Ring article had written what I had told, and furthermore, theirs were with priorities for important people in the network. That shows that what I had suggested was not unthinkably costly. Thus, as techies/engineers, we people in that class, were supposed to test the suggestion, with formulas. Not dismiss.
Thus, if testing/thinking were the T-transition, that is not used there. And that probably suggests why Turkey is backward, while the USA keeps improving in technology. I was made to shut up in class (although I had not changed my mind), while people in U.S. had their Token Ring, with that, and their extras -- the Testing-a-Tech-Thought-in-Turkey is left as a wasted thing.
Most of that course was tasteless -- especially the formula-derivations of the queueing theory was a waste-of-time. Interestingly, the lecturer himself told several times, that those things about calculating were not so useful in the real life. If I may believe that, at least, that would be the wisdom I would have found in that course. (Normally, I find almost all content of programming, in Byte, CACM, CUJ, etc, both fun and full of wisdom, but that course & others there, were wastes of time.) Not to belittle the queueing/network theory altogether, I may refer to Stallings, in Byte Feb.1991. (Granted, that lecturer and Stallings are not probably rated at the same level.)
About who-taught-who, notice that a course is in two phases. First the textbook is chosen, next, the lecturer is supposed to tell around that and answer the questions. If the lecturer in the class, is not able to answer the questions of students, your instructor is the textbook-author, as the lecturer in the class is not able to add value.
In that case, choosing the textbook is not a big problem, at all. The editors of big publishers (such as Addison-Wesley, Wiley, Prentice-Hall) probably understand well enough, what is worth publishing. Not that all are dumb, but your (unable-to-answer!) lecturer is the smart chooser.
The material is totally imported books (writing locally would not matter, as the content is foreign).
Surely, textbooks may differ in popularity. In the case of that lecture, I asked that lecturer why was the book of Schwartz not used, as that was telling those topics better. He said "That is old. Topics like ISDN do not exist in that." But the funny thing is that, although that textbook had published new content, the lecture itself was not using any of that. There was no ISDN topic, at all.
As a student, I was special in finding the literature. In fact, I kept suggesting interested people literature that might fit their interests. In the case of that lecturer, too, I remember that he subscribed the Wiley catalogue, with the coupon of the catalogue that I showed him. (That is, think this, with respect to the lecturer telling the names of the textbook. By the way, most of those books are international best sellers, thus, a finding type like me, does not need a lecturer to suggest a book name in any field -- at undergraduate level, especially.
As concerns who-taught-who, students often contribute with writing software, too. The flow-deviation that I wrote for that course, is probably a normal example of what is of no use for a student (and of no learning-value, "except" introductory data-structures application), but may help that lecturer and/or that university. (If I were to look for a comm-netwoks job, I would probably find plenty of software tools at the employing company.)
The lecturer may "subcontract" various aspects of a big project/suite, for use in a professional/academic context, but singly, unless a full real-world function, that is a toy.
A remedy is with formaze. We would not continue attending the lectures of any that we have not found valuable. A formazing student would have his/her wish-list -- self-thought, or following the wish-list of the prospective employers/etc. The learning and the testing/evaluating not yoked.
All of that may fit to explain the lower path being so busy, and the J-transition is keeping his token (the universty job, that will bring yet other students). Well, if the professor is worth his salt, a feedback from the students is a good thing. That is the way academia is working. But the two critical questions may find problems.
If to talk with the communications-electronics terms (not from that course), the confusion of that lecturer (& other such lecturers), is in the category of jamming. (A jammer is used for noisifying the communication around.)
That is, disrupting the thoughtful/inventive opinion that the student was trying to communicate
While writing about the copycat82, Kids Do That All the Time, I was musing that, that plagiarist may have worked at a kindergarten. The joke was that, in universities, students write software (applications, as well as libraries) that the project-proposer might benefit. That plagiarism case was so ignorant that, I suspected he might have worked at a kindergarten, and the cut&paste was the job of a bunch of kindergarteners.